The controlled production of animals that normally live in water (fish farming).

It has been estimated that sperm from 200 fish species has been successfully cryopreserved. However, appropriate to each species, optimizations of technology are needed. The successful cryopreservation of fish spermatozoa might be used to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior males, aid in the transport of semen and provide a year-round supply of male gametes. Furthermore, cryopreservation can increase the economic utilization of males and is a prerequisite for the establishment of gene banks. There has been considerable research on semen preservation in teleosts. The cryopreservation of the sperm of carp has been attempted by many authors. Besides the influence of the variability in biological material on the fertilizing ability of frozen semen, the multiplicity of cryopreservation procedures affects the consistency of fertilization results. Differences in diluents, cryoprotectants and freezing techniques make it difficult to get variable estimations of the efficiency of various procedures.