Topic outline

  • Topic 1

    In cattlemetabolic diseases include ketosis, milk fever, fat cow syndrome, and hypomagnesaemia. All these can produce an acute, temporary, but potentially fatal deficiency. Correcting the diet for cows during the period from late pregnancy to peak lactation is crucial in preventing these diseases.

  • Topic 2

    In cattlemetabolic diseases include ketosis, milk fever, fat cow syndrome, and hypomagnesaemia. All these can produce an acute, temporary, but potentially fatal deficiency. Correcting the diet for cows during the period from late pregnancy to peak lactation is crucial in preventing these diseases.

  • Topic 3

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is most common in young cattle (6–24 mo old). The clinical presentation can range from inapparent or subclinical infection to acute and severe enteric disease to the highly fatal mucosal disease complex characterized by profuse enteritis in association with typical mucosal lesions. BVD must be distinguished from other viral diseases that produce diarrhea and mucosal lesions. These include malignant catarrhal fever (see Malignant Catarrhal Fever), which usually is a sporadic disease in more mature cattle, bluetongue (see Bluetongue), and rinderpest (see Rinderpest), which is currently considered to be eradicated worldwide.

  • Topic 4

    Diarrhea is common in newborn calves, lambs, and kids. The clinical presentation can range from mild diarrhea without systemic disease to profuse, acute diarrhea associated with rapid dehydration, severe disturbance of acid-base and electrolyte balance, and death, sometimes in as few as 12 hr. This discussion emphasizes the disease in calves, but the principles of pathophysiology and treatment apply to lambs and kids as well.

  • Topic 6

    Respiratory disease is among the most economically important diseases of cattle in production on a worldwide basis.

  • Topic 8

    Sudden dietary changes, weaning, cold, drafts, dampness, dust, high levels of ammonia, poor ventilation in general, and the mixing of widely divergent age groups all play a role in respiratory disease in groups of animals. Stress and mixing of animals from several sources should be avoided or minimized. Establishing individual animal identification, making accurate clinical and postmortem diagnoses, and maintaining a record system of diagnosis and treatment are important to minimize or control outbreaks of pneumonia. Transportation over long distances is another stress factor that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections in large animals.

  • Topic 10

    THE differential diagnosis of diseases causing oral lesions in cattle can pose problems both clinically and at necropsy. Several diseases can be associated with crusting of the muzzle, and erosion, ulceration, necrosis and, occasionally, vesiculation of the oral mucosa. Few signs or lesions associated with oral infection are pathognomonic and an aetiological diagnosis based solely on clinical observation is often not possible. An accurate diagnosis is essential so that any potentially devastating disease is recognised at an early stage

  • Topic 11

    ESOPHAGEAL OBSTRUCTION IN LARGE ANIMALS

    COMPLICATIONS OF ESOPHAGEAL OBSTRUCTION

    ESOPHAGEAL STRICTURES IN LARGE ANIMALS

    ESOPHAGEAL NEOPLASIA IN LARGE ANIMALS

  • Topic 12

    DISEASES OF THE RUMINANT FORESTOMACH

    SIMPLE INDIGESTION IN RUMINANTS

    GRAIN OVERLOAD IN RUMINANTS

  • Topic 13

    Ruminant animals are adapted to digest and metabolize predominantly forage diets; however, growth rates and milk production are increased substantially when ruminants consume high-grain diets. One consequence of feeding excessive amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates in conjunction with inadequate fiber to ruminants is subacute ruminal acidosis, which is characterized by periods of low ruminal pH that resolve without treatment and is rarely diagnosed. Dairy cows, feedlot cattle, and feedlot sheep are at risk of developing this condition.


  • Topic 14

    Determination of the cause of intestinal disease in cattle is based on clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings. Nonspecific therapy includes oral and parenteral fluid therapy to restore the fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis. Specific therapy and prevention are detailed under the individual disease headings. Intestinal diseases of neonates are discussed separately, although some of the causes also affect older animals.