The "Enlightenment" and "Scientific Revolution" century is a period in which new branches of science emerged and great changes in philosophy and science were seen. Accordingly, emerging sciences have manifested themselves as disciplines that do not comply with the branches of science defined in the historical process. For example, new social science disciplines such as sociology, history, and psychology are not compatible with a specific 'definition' in the tension between the traditional science definition and the new science definition, nor are the definitions suggested by the data produced from the history of natural sciences called “solid science”.

In this context, it has been the subject of debate whether these disciplines are science and how to make a definition that will cover both these disciplines and be suitable for 'real science activity'.

Thus, the first problem that imposed itself since this century is the need for redefining science. While the first group advocated the argument that "the correct solution of these problems is to examine the outstanding science products that have been introduced in the historical process", the second group defended the argument that "the way to answer these questions correctly is through the examination of the concepts used by science, the method used, and the quality of the information it produces".

The History of Scientific Thought is in the common area of ​​these two approaches. The aim of this course is to examine the approaches related to scientific thinking and to enable the participants to participate in the discussions in this field.