Topic outline

  • General

    The genetic structure of humans can be explored in two ways, usually from their ancestors and later gained according to their lifestyle. The change of the genetic expression can also cause the proteins that function depending on the coding of the genes to change. These changes are also important differences in the treatment of diseases. For example, changes in protein structure due to differences in genetic structure in different individuals with the same disease may result in successful or unsuccessful treatment methods. The use of the same drug molecule in hypertensive patients with the same mechanism does not produce the same results in the treatment of these patients. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the treatment of individualized forms of treatment and to classify the differences in drug molecules in terms of their genomics, proteomics and chemoformative patterns in terms of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. The classification of the genes and the proteins they encode involves the guiding and deterministic stages of new drug design in the approach of "no disease, patient exists".

    Drug molecules need to interact with a protein structure in order to be able to show their biological effects. Depending on the gene, mutated protein constructs have different affinities and activation (inhibition and / or stimulation) processes for drug molecules, so the response to treatment will be different. For this reason, medicinal chemistry is essential for the evaluation of chemoformatic and bioinformatic methods using rational molecular designs in their interactions with differentiated protein structures due to the redesign of drug molecules and genetic alterations of individuals.

    To this end, this derste primarily deals with the chemoformatical importance and evaluation processes of the human genetic structure of Medisinal Kim, addressing the chemoinformatic and bioinformatic affinities, potentially addressing the therapeutic implications of molecular changes within the pharmaceutical profession's superiority in the field of drug molecules, functions are being tried to be improved.

  • Topic 1: Definition of Genetics

    Genetics: Genetic (f), Fr. Genetique (f), Genetic (γενετικός - genetic), and γένεσις - genesis (genetic). It is a scientific discipline that expresses the identification of certain diseases in this organism. Modern genetic science began in the mid-19th century, and the inheritance units are expressed in terms of chromosomes and gene definitions found in these chromosomes by describing the DNA structure.

    In this course, the genetic approach will be discussed as "Molecular Genetics".

  • Topic-2: Genomics Concept and Related Topics

    The concept of genomics seeks to explain how genes and environmental effects of both genetic and environmental influences are reflected at the gene level and at the cell level, taking into account the interrelationships between the activities involved in addressing the differences of the genes that provide a specific organization in coding the structural and functional functions of a living organism. At the beginning of the concepts related to genomics are proteomics, chemoinformatics, bioinformatics and metabolomics.

    Especially proteomics relation is important in terms of our lecture and chemoformatics approaches to design ligand-protein interactions of drug molecules due to genetic alterations are discussed. Therefore, the concept of structural and functional genomics is explained and the aims and methods of using it in new drug design are covered.

  • Topic 3: Genetic Materials: New Drug Design and Development in terms of Cell Core and Mitochondrial DNA Structures and Medicinal Chemistry

    As known, prokaryotic cells contain a programmed mechanism that stores both genetic information and provides functional use of the cell's information. This mechanism also controls cellular behavior, both transmitted by generations by means of genetic means, and stored later acquired knowledge. This is accomplished through DNA, RNA and encoded proteins. For this reason, the molecular structures of DNA, RNA and related proteins must be known from the viewpoint of the control of the molecular structures that enter into our bodies from both drugs and if necessary from nutrients. Especially, the understanding of the chemical activities and reaching a somewhat more understandable level of the changes that the molecular behavior patterns will form on the cell basis are in the frame of cause- will be emphasized. For this, especially molecular aspects of DNA, RNA and protein should be investigated in terms of medicinal chemistry.

  • Topic 4: The importance of Genomics in terms of Medicinal Chemistry

    The genetic structure of living things (Genome) has important informative information regulating organism growth in the organism. The first of these is the use of molecules taken by food and medicines in intracellular regulation. All studies for the discovery of a new drug molecule are attempted to be based on the interaction of the candidate drug molecule with the relevant proteins at the cell level. As is known, these studies show that proteins encoded by genes interact with molecules entering the cell. Briefly, this complex formation, termed ligand-protein interactions, is important for cell regulation as well as for access to information on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

    Medicinal Chemistry is an important science aimed at the design and development of new medicines, and it includes important learning inputs that determine new methods in the molecular approach towards medicines and designing the differences arising from genetic coding to explore and develop new drug molecules according to the desired changes in biological goals. For this reason, the concept of the development of genomics and new drugs involves the use of medicinal chemoinformatics and bioinformatics in more rational approaches.

  • Topic 5: Genomics and Diagnostic Approaches to Diseases

    Genomic approaches are not only important for the diagnosis of diseases. Due to the genetic origins of individual differences towards treatment, it also constitutes an important field of science. Although genomic approaches to Medicinal Chemistry are very important, they are still very new in the field of drug discovery. Because of the polymorphism formation based on the differentiation of the genetic structure in the concept of "No disease, patient exists" which is trying to be understood nowadays, very important information about the future of the genomics and medicinal chemistry concepts is that the different individuals with the same disease have different responses to the applied drug molecules. It will provide.

    To this end, the way in which the molecules of the drug for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases are treated firstly must be evaluated in terms of medicinal chemistry. However, it is also clear that there is not yet a way to develop a conscious approach to this issue. The work done is in an initial stage with "Crispr" methods in particular.

  • Topic 6: Drug Therapy in Genetic Diseases

    In genetic diseases, the structure of the drug molecule is a very important parameter. Depending on the nature of genetic differentiation, structural differences in the required drug molecule and variations in the molecular substitution template may change the way genes bind to the proteins they encode. Due to differences in protein behavior due to mutations in the genetic structure, it is necessary to predict individual genetic differentiation, especially diseases with genetic roots, such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Because, even if the disease is the same, the drug molecule that will affect the protein mutation that changes in person is also different. This requires the treatment of the chemometrics of the medicinal chemistry methods on the genomic approach.

  • Topic 7: Genomics and Gene Therapy

    Genetic diseases can be treated through DNA and / or RNA delivery to the patient through some vectors. Generally, specific viruses can be used as vectors. As a result of genomic studies carried out on living organisms or more specifically on humans, anomalies in the construction of some genes can be detected using various methods of gene transfer to the cells selected as the target cells. The methods of somatic gene therapy and germline gene therapy can vary depending on the nature of the tissues studied and the probable outcome of the result.

  • Topic 8: Mitochondria and DNA

    Mitochondria, which serve as the energy center of the cell, can be in different numbers depending on the function of the cells, are found in the cytoplasm, and have a multiplicity pattern that is independent of cell division in general. Mitochondrion has its own unique DNA and RNA. Many genetic diseases are caused by mitochondrial DNA and these diseases pass from mother to child. In humans, mitochondria have 37 genes, 16,569 nucleotides, independent of the DNA in the cell nucleus, and there are many genetic diseases caused by mitochondria.
  • Topic-9: Genomics, Proteomics and New Drug Design (Bioinformatics and Chemoinformatics)

    While genomics and proteomics are involved in bioinformatics, their methodological use in new drug designs can be considered within the concept of chemoinformatics. By describing the biological effect of an organic molecule formed by the presence of common points in the storage of biological and chemical data and the use of information, ligand-protein interactions can be addressed with explanatory expressions on some models. For this, the affinity and activation levels of the proteins encoded by the genes can be reduced to levels that can be explained by both bioinformatic and chemoinformatic methods.

    By analyzing biological and genetic information, we can determine by bioinformatic and chemoinformatic methods that these molecules can undergo major transformation according to the change in electrostatic, hydrophobic and steric templates in the molecular structures of the compounds that may be the proposed drug candidates.