Topic outline

  • General

    Organic chemistry is a “core” of living creators and essence of life. It remains committed to driving the life with the chemical compounds in order to ensure that these endogenous and also exogenous (taken by drugs and foods) molecules in our lives are transformed into one another for being beneficial to providing the continuity of life and realizing the healthy functioning of the living systems.

    The second term of Organic Chemistry course semtinizes the and focuses on the understanding aspects of chemical reactions which are very familiar in our body systems. To do this, we will begin with the indroductory essensials of organic chemistry reaction of the recently (first term) shown the fundamentals of the structures related to organic compounds. We are aware of that organic chemistry has played a central and decisive role in shaping the 20th century, and so on. But it srarted in 19th century with the first synthesis of urea from ammonium cyanate by Wohler in 1828. After the Kekule realized the structure of benzene, advances of drug discovery leading to an enormous amount of wealth which has been evaluated in a parallel with related accomplishments in science and advances in medicine have dramatically changed the way we live in this world. It is clear that the contribution of organic chemistry is considerably important.

    Therefore, in the second term of organic chemistry course, we will mostly discuss on the chemical reaction types synthesis of biologically significant molecules.

  • Topic 2

    This topic mostly covers briefly but fundamentally the organic name reactions and reagents with the most up-to-date basics to be required for the second grade pharmacy students aimed to prepare themselves for the “Drug World”. Because, we all know that the drug molecules, including the chemistry of foods, are the function of the biological activity. Most of the organic reactions are happening in our body and after transporting from several compartments, they reach to the targeted site to show their biological activities referred to molecular structures as well as abilities for allowing themselves into biotransformation procedures (metabolism).

     Therefore, organic reactions and explanations of the mechanisms, in general description, are the elementary aspects of understanding the biological cycle of events on the basis of organic interactions. This topic offers students an comprehensible resource for conducting experiments and performing a broad range of applications, from pharmaceuticals to food chemistry. Each reaction listing is organized into uniform sections that allow students to quickly gather the information they need to conduct their own capacity of how and why name reactions have been the leading experimental procedures in drug design and the chemistry for life.

  • Topic 3

    In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition of a group to a double and/or triple bonds to a newly inclusion of the group to the molecule as well as forming a single bond in the host molecule. In this type of reactions, pi-bond electrons (found in double/triple bonds) act as bases and nucleophiles. The addition reactions to alkenes initiate the attack of pi-electrons from double/triple bonds to form carbocation on the most stable carbon atom. Then, a nucleophile in the reaction media, attacks the carbocation to form the product. This procedure involves in for several reaction types shown below.




    Oxidative Cleavage




    Halohydrin Formation

  • Topic 4

    Nucleophilic reactions are generally fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group. The nucleophile is known a chemical species that donates an electron pair or pairs to form a chemical bond. Because of the nucleophiles donating electrons, they are also considered as Lewis bases.

  • Topic 5

    A cycloaddition is a pericyclic chemical reaction. Two or more unsaturated molecules (or parts of the same molecule) combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity. A combination of two pi-electron systems to form a ring of atoms having two new sigma bonds and two fewer pi bonds is called a cycloaddition reaction. 

  • Topic 6

    Aromaticity and Aromatic Substitution Reactions