Topic outline

  • Introduction

    What is speaking?

    Importance of speaking skill

  • Background to teaching speaking

    Principles for teaching speaking

  • Characteristics of the spoken language

    The grammar of the spoken language

    Lexical properties of the spoken language

    The effects of processing constraints on the quality of speech

  • Speech production

    Aspects of speech production

    The effects of speech planning on L2 production

  • What speakers do?

    Conceptualization and formulation


    Self-monitoring and repair


  • What speakers do?



    Managing talk

    -      Interaction

    -      Turn-taking


  • What speakers know?

    Extralinguistic knowledge

    -      Sociocultural knowledge

    Linguistic knowledge

    -      Genre knowledge

    -      Discourse knowledge

    Pragmatic knowledge

  • What speakers know?

    Linguistic knowledge

    -      Grammar

    -      Vocabulary

    -      Phonology

    Speech conditions

  • Teaching speaking

    -      Conversational routines

    -      Styles of speaking

    -      Functions of speaking

  • Implications for teaching

    -      Teaching talk as interaction

    -      Teaching talk as transaction

    -      Teaching talk as performance

  • Classroom activities to promote speaking


  • Classroom activities to promote speaking


  • Planning and assessing speaking

    Evaluating performance on speaking activities