Konu özeti

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    source= Raif Dizdarevic, From the Death of Tito to the Death of Yugoslavia, 2009; (translation into English by Saba Risaluddin).

    Chapter One—Marshal Tito’s Illness and Death

    November 25 is the date on which Bosnia and Herzegovina celebrates its statehood; the date on which in 1943, in the Bosnian town of Mrkonjic-Grad, the Partisans’ parliament (the National Anti-Fascist Council of the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) proclaimed the Republic to be a state, part of the Yugoslav federation of republics. It was because of this national holiday, too, that he wanted to bestow a particular significance on the celebrations of the statehood of this multinational republic within the Yugoslav federation: to send a special message to the Yugoslav public as a whole by way of warning to the more or less covert nationalist tendencies that were beginning to emerge. He spoke very emotionally of the achievements of the Partisans’ war, of the building of the common state after 1945, and of the need to be particularly sensitive to inter-ethnic harmony. “We must jealously preserve the achievements of our revolution, particularly the international relations we built up during the Partisans’ struggle”, said Tito. Evidently wishing his words to serve as a broader and more explicit message for Yugoslavia as a whole, he spoke of the need to oppose every manifestation of nationalism and clero-nationalism, of his concern for the younger generation and, above all, of the country’s economic development as the key to the future of Yugoslavia. As was his way, he insisted on greater accountability and on sanctions for those who did not perform their duties as agreed. He had the same harsh words for various opposition groups and individuals sowing dissension in the country, and spoke of the international situation and of Yugoslavia’s active role in the international affairs of the day.

    *Raif Dizdarevic was born in 1926 in Fojnica. He was in the Yugoslav diplomatic service for many years. He was the only Bosniac during the entire history of Yugoslavia (1918-1991) to be “Speaker of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia, a post he held from 1982-83. Afterwards, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs (1984-88) and President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (1988-89). He was also awarded the ZAVNOBIH  award. (p.s. ZAVNOBIH meant the National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was formed on 25 November 1943 under the control  of the Partisans and AVNOJ).

     


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      source= THE EASTERN QUESTION (1774-1923) (by M.S.ANDERSON, 1991)

      Chapter 12—The Peace Settlement, 1918-23: Turkey accepted the armistice of Mudros in October 1918: her representatives were compelled by the allies to sign the peace-treaty of Sevres only in August 1920. The fact that this attempt at a settlement followed the armistice only after so long a delay explains its failure and the partial defeat for the allies which that failure involved. A number of factors helped to cause the delay…This sudden burst of Turkish national feeling was the result, not of the collapse of October 1918, but of the landing Greek troops at Smyrna on 15 May 1919… This action was led by Mustapha Kemal, the outstanding figure in the history of twentieeth-century Turkey… As the strength of his position became clearer Kemal became less and less willing to compromise with his opponents… At the end of the year he moved his headquarters from Sivas to Ankara, where the nationalist members of the new parliament drew up the National Pact. This in effect repeated the declaration issued at Sivas… The march of events was now steadily strengthening Kemal and his followers.

      *(Eastern Question, vocabulary): figure:design, motive, pattern. distinction:excellence, worth  to disembark:dismount, land, come into port integrity:completeness, entirety, totality.

       


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        source= ATATÜRK: THE REBIRTH OF A NATION (1964, by Patrick KINROSS)

        sub-Chapter Eight: The Balkan Wars

        When Kemal reached Constantinople the First Balkan War was as good as over. All Rumeli was lost… Macedonia had gone. Mustafa Kemal’s mother and sister had fled from Salonika, abandoning their home… The Greek army marched into Salonika… The blue-and-white Greek flag waved from the roofs and the Windows... Kemal was deeply affected by the loss of the place where he had been spent most of his life… Troops from Anatolia and officers from Tripoli had strengthened the defences of the Chatalj lines before Constantinople, and the Bulgarians could advance no further… Kemal had been appointed director of operations with the army corps on the Gallipoli Peninsula, of which Fethi was chief of staff. It was their duty to defend the Dardanelles, hence Constantinople, against a Bulgarian break-through.

        *Patrick Kinross was a journalist. During World War II he was posted as intelligence officer to the Middle East and later served as press counselor at the British Embassy in Cairo. His travels through the Levant resulted in many books, including Within the Taurus and Europa Minor. Repeated visits to Turkey led to the publication of Atatürk in 1964.


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          source= ESSAYS IN ENGLISH HISTORY  (by A.J.P.TAYLOR, 1977):

          Chapter One—Fiction in History: In most European languages “story” and “history” are the same word.

          The past, or more precisely the past of literate mankind, is our raw material. In this past events succeed each other in order of time. This awareness of time came quite late in man’s consciousness. Some civilizations do not have it… We cannot change the order of time unless of course we or our sources have made a mistake, which is by no means unknown. We cannot have the events other than they are.

          History is not just a catalogue of events put in the right order like a railway timetable. History is a version of events. Between the events and the historian there is a constant interplay. The historian tries to impose on events some kind of rational pattern: how they happened and even why they happened. No historian starts with a blank mind as a jury is supposed to do. He does not go to the documents or archives with a childlike innocence of mind and wait patiently until they dictate conclusions to him. Quite the contrary.

          When an historian is working on his subject, the events or statistical data or whatever he is using change under his hand all the time and his ideas about these events change with them. He upgrades some of the evidence and downgrades other parts according to the changes of his outlook.

          Sometimes he puts an unwelcomed piece of evidence at the bottom of the pile.

           


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            source= Book of Proverbs: A Treasury of Proverbial Wisdom, Saws, Maxims, Adages From Diverse Peoples and Ages (by Patricia Houghton, 1981), Cassell edition.

            “PROVERBS FROM MANY LANDS”

            CHINESE: “I was angered, for I had no shoes. Then I met a man who had no feet”. “

             “A man without a smiling face must not open shop”.

            “The first time it is a favour, the second time a rule”.

            RUSSIAN: “In the Kingdom of hope there is no winter”.

            SPANISH: “He who knows nothing, doubts nothing”.

            INDIAN: “When you are in the water you swim”.

            ARABIAN: “If the camel once gets his nose in the tent, his body will follow”.

            MALAY: “Fear to let fall a drop and you will spill a lot”.

             ITALIAN: “Have an open face but conceal your thoughts”.

            “When the sun is highest it casts the least shadow”.

            GREEK: “Don’t hear one and judge two”.

            TURKISH: “Measure a thousand times and cut once”.

            “No rose without a thorn, or a love without a rival”.

            “He that conceals his grief finds no remedy for it”.

             JAPANESE: “Life is for one generation; a good name is forever”.

            PORTUGUESE: “To kick with sore toe only hurts foot”.

            “Prosperity lets the bridle go”.

            IRISH: “Evening is speedier than morning”.


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              QUOTATIONS FROM MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK:

              --The Grand National Assembly of Turkey has assumed both the legislative and executive powers.(1921).

              --Liberty and independence are my character.(1921).

              --I have nothing to say to those who are against me. Let them be. But I cannot stand the hypocrisy of those who are my antagonists and yet try and present themselves to the people who love me, as if they are with me.(1923).

              --Sovereignty is vested with the nation unconditionally and without any reservation.(1923).

              ---To me, the dictator is he who makes others succumb to his will. I would like to rule not by breaking hearts but rather by winning them.(1935).

              ==========

              source= The Economist Dictionary of Political Biography, (editor: Jane Carroll, 1991). VYTAUTAS LANDSBERGIS (born in 1932): Lithuanian supreme council chairman (de facto president) and nationalist leader. Born in 1932, Landsbergis pursued a career as a music professor, specializing in Lithuanian music. He became actively involved in politics in 1988, when the founding congress of the nationalist Popular Front (Sajudis) elected him chairman of its ruling council. After Sajudis-backed candidates scored a landslide victory in early 1990 elections, Lithuania’s parliament elected Landsbergis as president.


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                source= A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century History 1914-1990 (by Peter TEED, 1992)

                A SELECTION OF BIOGRAPHIES-1

                Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK (1881-1938): President of the Republic of Turkey 1923-38. An Ottoman army officer, he distinguished himself in war against Italy (1911) and Bulgaria (1912), and at Gallipoli (1915). In May 1919 he was appointed Inspector-General of the 9th Army in Samsun, Anatolia, from where he organized resistance to the proposals of the Sevres Treaty. The defeat of the Greek army in 1922 was followed by the Chanak Crisis; this paved the way for the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. Turkey was declared a republic and the sultanate abolished, together with the caliphate in 1924. As first President of the Republic, Atatürk defined the principles of the state in the so-called six arrows of kemalism: republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism, secularism, and revolution.

                Muhammed Reza Shah PAHLAVI (1918-1980): Shah of Iran 1941-79. He succeeded his father Reza Shah Pahlavi when he was deposed (his father Reza Shah Pahlavi was obliged to abdicate and died in exile in South Africa in 1944). After the fall of Musaddıq in 1953, Muhammed Reza Shah Pahlavi used the new oil revenues to finance social and economic development, while sustaining an increasingly repressive regime. He steadily alienated all sections of Iranian society. After severe rioting in 1978 he left Iran in January 1979 ‘to go on holiday’. He never returned. A sick man, he sought refuge in the USA, Mexico, and elsewhere before being granted asylum in Egypt, where he died.

                Kwame Francis Nwia Kofi NKRUMAH (1909-72): Prime Minister and President of Ghana 1957-66. Educated at Achimota College, in the USA, and at the London School of Economics, he lived and worked in London before and during World War II. He returned to the Gold Coast in 1947 as general-secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention, an African nationalist party founded by J.B.Danquah. He was a key organizer of the Manchaster Pan-African Congress of 1945. In 1949 he founded the Convention People’s Party. After a short imprisonment by the British for sedition, he was appointed Prime Minister and led his country to independence as Ghana (1957), the first British African colony to achieve this. His style of government was autocratic, but in his first years he was immensely popular with his policy of Africanization. In 1964 he was declared President for life. In 1966, while he was on a visit to Hanoi, a military coup deposed him. He died in exile in Romania.

                A SELECTION OF BIOGRAPHIES (glossary)

                custom:tax, levy, tariff, duty           official:chief, director, authority.

                to fight:battle, assail, assault, compete, struggle.  to concentrate upon:to focus

                resistance:hindering, hindrance, fighting back, impeding.

                to stir:to mix, to conglomerate         to depose: unseat, dethrone, expel, dismiss, overthrow, discard.   to practise:perform, afflict, exercise.

                 

                 


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                  source= Collins Concise Dictionary of Quotations, compiled by Donald FRASER,1991.

                  QUOTATIONS (general)

                  ALEXANDER the Great (356-323 B.C.): "Heaven can not brook two suns, nor earth two masters".// “If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes”.

                  ARCHIMEDES (287-212 B.C.): “Give me a firm place to stand, and I will move the earth”.

                  ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.): “The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet”.// “I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies”.// “Our characters are the result of our conduct”.

                  Walter BAGEHOT (1826-1877): "One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea".

                  Anton CHEKHOV (1860-1904): “I’m in mourning for my life”.// “When a woman isn’t beautiful, people always say, You have lovely eyes, you have lovely hair“.

                  Julius CAESAR (102-44 B.C.): "Veni, vidi, vici. I came, I saw, I conquered".

                  CONFUCIUS (c.550-c.478 B.C.): “True goodness springs from a man’s own heart. All men are born good”.

                  René DESCARTES (1596-1650): "Cogito, ergo sum. I think, therefore I am".

                  Charles DICKENS (1812-1870): “There are strings in the human heart that had better not be wibrated”.// "Accidents will occur in the best-regulated families".

                  Benjamin DISRAELI (1804-1881): “No Government can be long secure without a formidable opposition”.// “There is a moderation even in excess”.

                  Anthony EDEN (1897-1977): “We are not at war with Egypt. We are in armed conflict”.

                  Thomas Alva EDISON (1847-1931): "Genius is one per cent inspiration and ninety-nine per cent perspiration".

                  Albert EINSTEIN (1879-1955): “Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding”.// “Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile”.

                  Gerard Didier ERASMUS (1465-1536): "It is well known that among the blind the one-eyed man is king".

                  Benjamin FRANKLIN (1706-1790): “Be in general virtuous, and you will be happy”.// “To lenghten the life, lessen the meals”.// “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes”.

                  Johann Wolfgang von GOETHE (1749-1832): "Divide and rule, a sound motto. Unite and lead a better one".

                  HERACLITUS (6th century B.C.): "It is impossible to step twice into the same river".

                  Niccolo di Bernardo MACHIAVELLI (1469-1527): "Titles do not reflect honour on men, but rather men on their titles".

                  Franklin Delano ROOSEVELT: “I pledged you—I pledged myself— to a new deal for the American people”.// “We must be the great arsenal of democracy”.// “I ask you to judge me by the enemies I have made”.

                  William SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616): Hamlet: “To be, or not to be: that is the question”.

                  Oscar WILDE (1854-1900): “Art never expresses anything but itself”.// “In matter of grave importance, style, not sincerity, is the vital thing”.// “Experience, the name men give to their mistakes”.

                  Woodrow WILSON (1856-1924): “Generally young men are regarded as radicals. This is a popular misconception. The most conservative persons I ever met are college undergraduates”.// “Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view” (“Fourteen Points”, 1918).


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                    source= Elie Kedourie, Politics in the Middle East, 1992.

                    THREAT AND PREDICAMENT

                     A manual of Ottoman public administration dating from the end of the nineteenth century describes the progress of an application to a government office from a member of the public...  It is not only that the traditional functions of government now became the affair of a finicky and vexatious bureaucracy. It is also that the logic of reform acquired an impetus of its own, and led to the state assuming new responsibilities with a view of promoting the welfare of the people. The Ottoman Government wished to ameliorate the collection of taxes and the administration of justice… Reforming activity extended also to landownership and tenure… But the political purpose of the land laws, either to provide security for property, or to create a landed aristocracy, or an independent peasantry with a stake in the land, proved a failure… In Egypt, for instance, the prominent political figures under Muhammad Ali’s successors up to the abdication of King Faruq in 1952 did not derive their position from the ownership of land… Both Rescripts, that of 1839 and that of 1856, endeavoured to give solemn expression to these European ideals in an official document emanating from the highest authority –an authority whose power had been unbounded, and which now seemed to be committing itself to the limitation of this very power, and promising to put itself under the restraint of the laws… Decades, then, of intensive military, legal, and administrative reform in the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, Tunis, and (to a much lesser extent) Iran did not result in greater military security, better or more economical administration, stable or less precarious public finances, a more contented or less restless population.


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                      source= THE MEDITERRANEAN IN HISTORY (compiled by D.ABULAFIA, 2003):

                      Chapter Seven:“Resurgent Islam 1500-1700” written by Molly Greene, Princeton University:

                      The Ottoman Mediterranean: In the spring of 1451 Sultan Mehmet began work on a new fortress on the European side of the Bosphorus (Bayezit I had already built the fortress on the Asian side, Anadolu Hisarı, in 1393). He selected a spot overlooking the narrowest part of water-way and called it, appropriately, “Boghaz-kesen (“the cutter of the strait” or “the cutter of the throat”)”. It is known to us today as Rumeli Hisar.

                      ==========

                      source=(extracted from)=  “THE AGE OF ATTILA” (published in 1960, written by C.D.GORDON)

                      Although most of the Barbarians were of Teutonic origin, potentially the greatest menace to East and West alike came from the Huns, particularly they were firmly united under the rule of Attila (445-53).  The chief threat to the Roman Empire came from the Huns. For 8 years after his accession to power Attila was occupied in building his empire in the northern lands, in reducing the Ostrogoths and Gepids to positions of subservience or alliance, and in attacking the Persian Empire.

                      ==========

                      source=(extracted from)= Henry H. CUMMING, Franco-British Rivalry in the Post-War Near East: The Decline of French Influence

                      SAN REMO AND THE TREATY OF SEVRES (1920)

                      Despite months of deliberation, the Allies were unable to dispose of the Turkish question, as well as the allocation of the mandates, at Paris in 1919. Raymond Poincaré, the President of the French Republic, and his Prime Minister, Benjamin Clemenceau (as well as the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, and his foreign secretaries, Lord Balfour and his successor Lord Curzon) saw that the Turks had realised that the Allies were not very solidly united on the Turkish question.


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                        THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1800-1923 (extracted from THE TIMES Concise Atlas of World History, fourth edition, 1992):

                        dynasty: series of rulers of a country who all belong to the same family (the dynasty he founded ruled for 700 years); a period of time during which a country is ruled by members of the same family (Colonisation took place during the Habsburg dynasty).

                        invasion: the action of an army entering a country by force; attack, offensive, raid, combat.

                        province: district, area, region, locality, or section of a country.

                        principality: the country, that is ruled by a prince or that a prince takes his title from(e.g.principality of Monaco); realm, domain, kingdom.

                        be absorbed into: be included, digested, assimilated, grasped, taken up, adapted.

                        subsequently: afterwards, thereafter, later (subsequent: following, succeeding, ensuing).

                        to be incorporated (into): include, be merged, combined, embodied, consolidated, united.

                        to cede (to): transfer, abandon, surrender, capitulate, yield, concede.

                        protectorate: a country that is controlled and protected by a more powerful country; colony, dependency.

                        autonomy: the control or government of a country, organisation, or group by itself rather than by others.

                        mandate: authority given to someone to govern a particular territory; the governmental authority that it has to carry out particular policies as a result of winning an election.

                        to partition: the dividing of a country into parts so that each part becomes an independent country; to part, to distribute, separate, alienate, divide.

                        intermittent: something that happens or appears occasionally or at regular intervals rather than constantly or continuously; irregular, inconsistent, erratic, disconnected.

                        to enlarge: to bulk, to expand, to extend, to increase, to amplify.

                        hereditary: a title or position in society that is hereditary is one that is passed on as a right from parent to child; inborn, congenital, inherent.

                        to regain: recover, reclaim, retrieve, redeem, restore.

                        to assign: give out, allocate, appoint, attribute, allot, apportion.

                        obligation: responsibility, contract, liability, commitment.

                        virtually: in essence, practically, morally, substantially, implicitly.

                        nominally: theoretically(something supposed to have a particular identity or status, but in reality does not have it.(nominal:  so called, titular, in name only, figurehead, theoretical)

                        to facilitate: to make it easier; alleviate, appease, calm, conciliate, ease.

                        sect: a group of people with a particular set of religious and political beliefs.

                        to formalise: to make a plan clear and official(Their marriage vows will be formalized).

                         


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                          Army Officer Ranks (general)

                          genelkurmay başkanı—> chief of general staff

                          mareşal—> field Marshall                 başkomutan —> commander in chief

                          orgeneral —> general                        korgeneral—>lieutenant-general

                          tümgeneral —> major general           tuğgeneral—>brigadiergeneral
                          albay —>colonel                    yarbay—>lieutenant colonel

                          binbaşı—>majör                     yüzbaşı—>captain
                          üsteğmen—>first lieutenant  teğmen —>second lieutenant

                          PİYADE/infantry, infrantyman; TOPÇU/artillery, artilleryman; İSTİHKAM/military engineering; SÜVARİ/cavalry….

                           

                          READING:  (source= David Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East 1914-1922, Penguin Books, 1989). THE WARRIORS: Shaken by the Allied bombardment of 18 March, Enver Pasha announced an uncharacteristic and important decision: he relinquished command of the Ottoman forces at the Dardanalles to the German general, Liman von Sanders. It ran counter to all of Enver’s instincts to turno ver his Moslem warriors to a foreign—and Christian— commander. Until that moment he had resisted pressures to turn over authority, even to the German experts who served as departmental and staff advisers. Although he had allowed German officers in his War Ministry to move into key posts in the Departments of Operations, Intelligence, Railroads, Supply, Munitions, Coal, and Fortresses, he had jealously questioned the judgements and circumscribed the authority of his German colleagues; and in many areas he finally stepped aside on the battlefield that most mattered.

                          ==========


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                            source= David Butler&Gareth Butler, British Political Facts 1900-1985, sixth edition, 1986.

                            LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 1919-1946: Britain was a founder member of the League of Nations. Between 1919 and 1922 the British Government conducted its relations with the League through its cabinet secretariat. After 1922 the Foreign Office was responsible for British representation at the League. A member of the Government was generally deputed to act as British representative at meetings of the League. No permanent national delegation stayed at Geneva. A.Eden was the only Minister appointed officially for League of Nations Affairs (7 June-22 Dec 35)… The Leauge was formally dissolved in 1946 although in practice it ceased to meet during the war.

                            UNITED NATIONS, 1946-..: Britain was one of the original signatories of the Charter of the United Nations. Since 1946 the British Government has had a permanent representative at the United Nations in New York.

                            ==========

                            source= THE POLITICS OF UNION AND PROGRESS (by Feroz AHMAD): The character of post-revolution politics in Turkey was largely determined by the Unionist ideology and organisation. In July 1908 the Committee of Union and Progress (the CUP) emerged. In a few year time, Talat became the president of the CUP. Immediately after the restoration of the Ottoman Constitution, a number of Unionists came to prominence. They included Talat, Enver, Dr.Nazım, Dr.Bahaeddin Şakir, Rahmi Bey, and Emanuel Karasu, better known in Europe as 'Carasso, the Jewish lawyer from Salonika' .  Between 1908 and 1914 the Sublime Porte suffered at the hands of a number of powers. The Turks lost about 424,000 square miles out of a total area of about 1,153,000 square miles, and approximately 5,000,000 souls from a population of about 24 million.


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                              source= A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century History 1914-1990 (by Peter TEED, 1992)

                              A SELECTION OF BIOGRAPHIES-2

                              Achmad SUKARNO (1901-1970): First President of Indonesia 1949-68. Son of poor schoolteachers, he was to be know as Bung Karno (The Leader) in later years. He studied engineering in Bandung. He was imprisoned 1929-31 and then exiled to Sumatra in 1933. On 17 August 1945 he declared Indonesian independence. Four years of struggle with the Dutch followed, before he returned to Jakarta in December 1949 as President, residing in the splendid palace of the Governor-General. The Bandung Conference of 1955 was perhaps his greatest achievement.

                              Harry TRUMAN (1884-1972): “President of the USA 1945-53. He studied law t night school in Kansas City, and quickly built a law practice and entered local politics as a Democrat. In the Senate he quickly gained a reputation for scrupulous integrity. In 1944 he was invited to run as Roosevelt’s Vice-President. Having met the President only twice, he himself became President after eighty-two days in Office and with little experience of government. In July (1945) he found himself attending the Potsdam Conference, and in August he authorized the use of the atom bomb against Japan”.

                              Jean MONNET (1888-1979):  French economist and administrator. Born in Cognac, he became a civil servant 1915-19, when he developed a high reputation for finance. He was an adviser for the League of Nations and an advocate of economic co-operation between the USA and Europe. In 1947 he became Commissioner-General of the Monnet Plan, which in five years enabled France to outstrip its pre-war production. He became the first president of the ECSC 1952-5. Monnet’s ultimate aim was to see a United States of Europe, and he became a critic of de Gaulle’s policies towards the European Community, welcoming Britain’s entry in 1973.

                              Richard Milhous NIXON (1913-1994): President of the USA 1969-74. Born in California and educated at Duke University, NC, he was a rising lawyer in 1942, when he joined the US Navy. Elected to Congress in 1946, he at once became involved in seeking out ‘UN-American Activities’. In 1953 he became Vice-President to President Eisenhower. His administration (1969) initiated a New Economic Policy (1971) to counteract inflation, which included an unprecedented attempt to control prices and wages in peacetime. His presidency is best remembered for its achievements in foreign affairs, for which his Secretary of State Henry Kissenger was at least partly responsible. Having inherited the Vietnam War, Nixon began by extending it, by invading Cambodia (1970) and Laos (1971), and by saturation bombing. Recognition was given to the Communist regime of the People’s Republic of China as the official government of China (1971), and in February 1972 he paid a visit to China. Although re-elected in 1972, his second term was scarred by the Watergate scandal. Nixon announced his resignation in 1974 and was succeeded by his Vice-President Gerald Ford. (Watergate scandal: In 1972 five employees of a Republican Party organization were arrested for breaking into the headquarters of the Democratic Party’s National Committee. This had been meeting in the Watergate complex in Washington DC, and they aimed to wire-tap the proceedings. It was soon discovered that their actions formed part of a campaign to help President Nixon to win the 1972 election. Several White House officials and aides were prosecuted and convicted on criminal charges. As extracts from the conversations were released, it became clear that Nixon too had been involved. This he eventually admitted, and on 9 August 1974 he resigned.)

                              A Selection of Biographies/glossary and exercises

                              assasination:murder, execution. just:lawful, impartial, equitable, fair.

                              to enunciate:articulate, proclaim, affirm   

                              to promote:elevate, advance, urge, raise, improve.

                              deputy:administrative officer, marshall, chief.     

                              formation:configuration, arrangement.

                              annulment:nullification, invaliditation, revokation.       

                              powerless:impotent, ineffective, spineless, inadequate, futile.